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andy

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andy last won the day on September 11

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About andy

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    www.mk2cav.com
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    jtypecav

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    Radstock, UK
  • Interests
    Building Cars, Making Video Games & Music.

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    2014 Octavia VRS Combi
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    Yellow GL, Monza SR, Ascona SRe

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  1. andy

    Frostbite 2022

    Greg - maybe in my white LX if there is no salt Andy - In something but not a Zuk.
  2. andy

    Frostbite 2022

    Yup after *some* moaning about not trying other places we had a couple of more "interesting" stays! Ibis was incredibly basic, but at least it had its own bar. Smack bang in the middle of those who are coming is fine by me if there's a premiere inn or equivalent so long as no need to drive from evening refreshments. If we've got a placeholder weekend I'll post it on FB once we've picked the middle of those going on here.
  3. andy

    Frostbite 2022

    Probably works for me! At least it's far enough away that it would.
  4. andy

    Frostbite 2022

    There is a reason it always ended up being Northampton, as in - if the northerners welsheners were coming! It was literally the middle point. So rather than for everyone deciding location, perhaps we get a list of definites who's up for it, then put a pin in the middle to find somewhere? Those from the south (and south wales) always ended up doing to most driving before by numbers, but those up north (or in Ireland) always came the furthest.
  5. I'm on the case. The black Vauxhall boot badge (with lugs) is a harder challenge!
  6. andy

    Frostbite 2022

    Used to do end of Feb, I'm game!
  7. Doors with interior handles/locks/eschaton's etc. (as are different to uk) - also electric window model as no winders. So ideally two doors complete, but worst case - left hand drivers door, complete with glass, electric motor door card etc.
  8. Have you heard of a company called "pack and go"? They advertise on Brazilian channels about anything that needs to be move from Brazil to EU. From your whole goods to presents for family members? It is an idea, and if you are shipping parts, I could go in same crate. Will message you.
  9. Hello Tivianna! Paul is right, we also have one. I am on the hunt for some Monza SR 1985 doors (2 door hatch). I have found a shipping company that sends from Brazil to UK, next is the challenge to find seller willing to use it! Keep up the fight! It will be worth it!
  10. Testing a 360 camera driving the yellow cav to meet Grey during a shakedown on OUR way to Sywell. Yes, Greg's LX...
  11. Put this together for my 20XE from a service manual. Found the entry for the 2.5 on the Corsa forum. Hope it's of some use! Mods/Admins: Feel free to make additions / extensions / corrections. NB: The 4.1 version is first, followed by the later 2.5 catalysed version that also has a dizzy. Not for coilpack / dispak setups per se (sorry Greg!), but these were similar to the 2.5 version which follows the 4.1 version. NB: Early 20XE's - These first valvers may have different loom colours, and the tamper screw on the CO2 pot is sometimes open to the air. These are pre-catalysed engines and are often referred to as "the fastest ones". If you have a lambda or a cat, scroll down to 2.5... Bosch Motronic 4.1 operation ( 20XE Pre 1990 ) The electronic system used to control the GM 8 valve engines (1987 to 1990) is labelled Motronic 4.1 and is a fully integrated EMS that controls primary ignition, fuelling and idle control from within the same ECU. In addition the ignition point and injection duration are jointly processed by the ECU so that the best moment for ignition and fuelling are determined for every operating condition. The injection function of the Motronic system is based on the well tried 'L' jetronic system, although a number of refinements have improved operation. A 35 pin connector and multi-plug connects the ECU to the battery, sensors and actuators. Basic ECU operation A permanent voltage supply is made from the vehicle battery to pin 18 of the ECU. This allows the self-diagnostic function to retain data of an intermittent nature. Once the ignition is switched on, a voltage supply to the ignition coil and to ECU pin 35 is made from terminal 87 of the main fuel injection relay. The majority of sensors (other than those that generate a voltage such the CAS and OS), are now provided with a 5.0 volt reference supply from a relevant pin on the ECU. When the engine is cranked or run, a speed signal from the CAS causes the ECU to earth pin 20 so that the fuel pump will run. Ignition and injection functions are also activated. All actuators (Injectors, ISCV, FTVV etc), are supplied with nbv from the main relay and the ECU completes the circuit by pulsing the relevant actuator wire to earth. Signal processing Basic ignition timing is stored in a two dimensional map and the engine load and speed signals determines the ignition timing. The main engine load sensor is the AFS and engine speed is determined from the CAS signal. Correction factors are then applied for starting, idle, deceleration and part and full-load operation. The main correction factor is engine temperature (CTS). Minor correction to timing and AFR are made with reference to the ATS and TS signals. The basic AFR is also stored in a two dimensional map and the engine load and speed signals determines the basic injection pulse value. Motronic calculates the AFR from the AFS signal and the speed of the engine (CAS). The AFR and the pulse duration are then corrected on reference to ATS, CTS, battery voltage and position of the TS. Other controlling factors are determined by operating conditions such as cold start and warm-up, idle condition, acceleration and deceleration. Motronic accesses a different map for idle running conditions and this map is implemented whenever the engine speed is at idle. Idle speed during all warm-up and normal hot running conditions are maintained by the ISCV. However, Motronic makes small adjustments to the idle speed by advancing or retarding the timing, and this results in an ignition timing that is forever changing during engine idle. Self Diagnostic function The Motronic 4.1 system has a self-test capability that regularly examines the signals from engine sensors and internally logs a code in the event of a fault being present. This code can be extracted from the Motronic Serial Port by a suitable Fault Code Reader. When the ECU detects that a fault is present, it earths pin 17 and the warning lamp on the dash will light. The lamp will stay lit until the fault is no longer present. If the fault clears, the code will remain logged until wiped clean with a suitable FCR, or until the engine has been started for more than 20 times when the fault code is self initialising. An ECU that retains codes for faults of an intermittent nature is a valuable aid to fault diagnosis. The codes emitted by the Motronic 4.1 ECU fitted to GM vehicles emit codes of the 'slow code' variety. This means that the codes can be extracted by connecting two pins in the SD (ALDL) plug together. In addition to the self-test capability, Motronic 4.1 has full limp home facilities. In the event of a serious fault in one or more of the sensors, the EMS will substitute a fixed default value in place of the defective sensor. This means that the engine may actually run quite well with failure of one or more minor sensors. Since the substituted values are those of a hot engine, cold starting and running during the warm-up period may be less than satisfactory. Also, failure of a major sensor, i.e. the AFS, will tend to make driving conditions less easy. Reference voltage Voltage supply from the ECU to many of the engine sensors is at a 5.0 volt reference level. This ensures a stable working voltage unaffected by variations in system voltage. The earth return connection for some engine sensors is made through an ECU pin that is not directly connected to earth. The ECU internally connects that pin to earth via one of the ECU pins that are directly connected to earth. Signal shielding To reduce RFI, the CAS uses a shielded cable. The shielded cable is connected to the main ECU earth wire at terminal 27 to reduce interference to a minimum. Crankshaft Sensor Ignition Data on load (AFS), engine speed (CAS), engine temperature (CTS) and throttle position (TS) are collected by the ECU, which then refers to a three dimensional digital map stored within its microprocessor. This map contains an advance angle for each operating condition, and thus the best ignition advance angle for a particular operating condition can be determined. Amplifier The Motronic amplifier contains the circuitry for switching the coil negative terminal at the correct moment to instigate ignition. The amplifier circuitry is contained within the ECU itself and the microprocessor contains a map containing the correct ignition dwell period for each condition of engine speed and battery voltage. One disadvantage of an internal amplifier, is that if the amplifier fails, the whole ECU must be renewed. Dwell Dwell operation in Motronic is based upon the principle of the 'constant energy current limiting' system. This means that the dwell period remains constant at around 4.0 to 5.0 ms, at virtually all engine running speeds. However, the dwell duty cycle, when measured in percent or degrees, will vary as the engine speed varies. A current limiting hump is not visible when viewing an oscilloscope waveform. Ignition coil The ignition coil utilises low primary resistance in order to increase primary current and primary energy. The amplifier limits the primary current to around 8 amps and this permits a reserve of energy to maintain the required spark burn time (duration). Distributor In the Motronic system, the distributor only contains secondary HT components (distributor cap, rotor and HT leads) and serves to distribute the HT current from the coil secondary terminal to each spark plug in firing order. Octane coding It is not possible to adjust the ignition timing on the Motronic 4.1 system. However, an octane coding plug is provided to enable the ECU to adopt different characteristics to suit various operating conditions. The ECU has been built with several different programs to cater for various circumstances, and selecting an alternative Octane Plug or setting will trigger a different program. The most obvious change is from leaded to unleaded fuel - or vice versa, when the ECU may alter the ignition timing and fuel map to cater for the changed conditions. Simply turning the standard 95/98 Octane Plug to its alternative position will fulfil the alternative condition. Other conditions may be fulfilled by fitting an alternative octane plugs - such as the 95/91. A number of other octane plugs are also available and depending upon the Octane Plug chosen, will cause fuel enrichment during acceleration, overall fuel enrichment throughout the engine speed range, timing ****** or an increase in idle speed. However, fitting alternative plugs should be approached with caution as the effects may be detrimental to good running and economy. Fuel injection The Motronic ECU contains a fuel map with an injector opening time for basic conditions of speed and load. Information is then gathered from engine sensors such as the AFS, CAS, CTS, and TS. As a result of this information, the ECU will look-up the correct injector pulse duration right across the engine rpm, load and temperature range. The Motronic 4.1 system is a multi-point injection system and pulses all injectors at the same time - i.e. simultaneously and twice per engine cycle. Half of the required fuel per engine cycle is injected at each engine revolution. During engine start from cold, the pulse duration and number of pulses (frequency) are increased to provide a richer air/fuel mixture. Fuel injectors The fuel injector is a magnetically operated solenoid valve that is actuated by the ECU. Voltage to the injectors is applied from the main relay and the earth path is completed by the ECU for a period of time (called pulse duration) of between 1.5 and 10 milliseconds. The pulse duration is very much dependant upon engine temperature, load, speed and operating conditions. When the magnetic solenoid closes, a back EMF voltage of up to 60 volts is initiated. The fuel injectors are mounted in the inlet stubs to the engine inlet valves so that a finely atomised fuel spray is directed onto the back of each valve. Since the injectors are all pulsed simultaneously, fuel will briefly rest upon the back of a valve before being drawn into a cylinder. Air Flow Sensor (AFS) The AFS is located between the air filter and the throttle body. As air flows through the sensor it deflects a vane (flap). The vane is connected to a wiper arm which wipes a potentiometer resistance track and so varies the resistance of the track. This allows a variable voltage signal to be returned to the ECU. Three wires are used by the circuitry of this sensor and it is often referred to as a three wire sensor. A 5 volt reference voltage is applied to the resistance track with the other end connected to the AFS earth return. The third wire is connected to the wiper arm. From the voltage returned, the ECU is able to calculate the volume of air (load) entering the engine and this is used to calculate the main fuel injection duration. To smooth out inlet pulses, a damper is connected to the AFS vane. The AFS exerts a major influence on the amount of fuel injected. ATSCO pot The CO pot mixture adjuster is a potentiometer that allows small changes to be made to the idle CO. A 5.0 volt reference voltage is applied to the sensor and connected to the AFS earth return circuit. The third wire is the CO pot signal. As the CO pot adjustment screw is turned the change in resistance returns a voltage signal to the ECU that will result in a change in CO. The CO pot adjustment only affects idle CO. Datum position is usually 2.50 volts. On catalyst equipped models, the CO pot has no effect and the CO is thus non-adjustable. CTSThrottle switch A throttle switch with dual contacts is provided to inform the ECU of idle position, deceleration, cruising and full-load (WOT) conditions. When the engine is at idle the idle contact is closed and the full-load contact is open. As the throttle is moved to the fully open position, the full-load contact closes and the idle contact becomes open. Under cruising conditions with a part-open throttle, both contacts are open. During full-load operation, the ECU provides additional enrichment. During closed throttle operation above a certain rpm (deceleration), the ECU will cut-off fuel injection. Injection will be reintroduced once the rpm returns to idle or the throttle is opened. ISCV The ISCV is a solenoid controlled actuator that the ECU uses to automatically control idle speed during engine warm-up and idle at normal operating temperature. Irrespective of engine temperature or engine load, the engine idle speed should remain at an almost constant level. The ISCV is located in a hose that connects the inlet manifold to the air filter side of the throttle plate. When an electrical load, such as headlights or heater fan etc are switched on, the idle speed would tend to drop. The ECU will sense the load and rotate the ISCV against spring tension to increase the air flow through the valve and thus maintain the idle speed at its previous level. When the load is removed, the ECU will pulse the valve so that the air flow is reduced. Normal idle speed of 780 to 850 rpm should be maintained under all cold and hot operating conditions. If the ISCV fails it will fail in a fail-safe position with the aperture almost closed. This will provide a basic idle speed. Relay The Motronic electrical system is controlled by a single system relay with dual contacts. A permanent voltage supply is made to relay terminal 30 from the battery positive terminal. When the ignition is switched on, a voltage supply is made to terminal 86 and this energises the first relay winding which is connected to earth. This causes the first relay contacts to close and terminal 30 is connected to the output circuit at terminal 87. A voltage supply is thus output at terminal 87. Terminal 87 supplies voltage to the injectors, ECU: t35, ISCV and the FTVV when fitted. In addition voltage is supplied to the second relay contact. When the ignition is switched on. the ECU briefly earths relay contact 85b at ECU terminal 20. This energises the second relay winding, which closes the second relay contact and connects voltage from terminal 30 to terminal 87b, thereby providing voltage to the fuel pump circuit. After a second or so, the ECU opens the circuit and the pump stops. This brief running of the fuel pump allows pressure to build within the fuel pressure lines, and provides for an easier start. The second circuit will then remain open until the engine is cranked or run. Once the ECU receives a speed signal from the CAS, the second winding will again be energised by the ECU, and the fuel pump will run until the engine is stopped. Fuel pressure system A roller type fuel pump, driven by a permanent magnet electric motor mounted close to the fuel tank, draws fuel from the tank and pumps it to the fuel rail via a fuel filter. The pump is of the 'wet' variety in that fuel actually flows through the pump and the electric motor. There is no actual fire risk because the fuel drawn through the pump is not in a combustible condition. Mounted upon the armature shaft is an eccentric rotor holding a number of pockets arranged around the circumference – each pocket containing a metal roller. As the pump is actuated, the rollers are flung outwards by centrifugal force to act as seals. The fuel between the rollers is forced to the pump pressure outlet. Fuel pressure in the fuel rail is maintained at a constant 2.5 bar by a fuel pressure regulator. The fuel pump normally provides much more fuel than is required, and surplus fuel is thus returned to the fuel tank via a return pipe. In fact, a maximum fuel pressure in excess of 5 bar is possible in this system. To prevent pressure loss in the supply system, a non-return valve is provided in the fuel pump outlet. When the ignition is switched off, and the fuel pump ceases operation, pressure is thus maintained for some time. Fuel pressure regulator The pressure regulator is fitted on the outlet side of the fuel rail and maintains an even pressure of 2.5 bar at the injectors during idle conditions. The pressure regulator consists of two chambers separated by a diaphragm. The upper chamber contains a spring which exerts pressure upon the lower chamber and closes off the outlet diaphragm. Pressurised fuel flows into the lower chamber and this exerts pressure upon the diaphragm. Once the pressure exceeds 2.5 bar, the outlet diaphragm is opened and excess fuel flows back to the fuel tank via a return line. A vacuum hose connects the upper chamber to the inlet manifold so that variations in inlet manifold pressure will not affect the amount of fuel injected. This means that the pressure in the rail is always at a constant pressure above the pressure in the inlet manifold. The quantity of injected fuel thus depends solely on injector opening time, as determined by the ECU, and not on a variable fuel pressure. At idle speed with the vacuum pipe disconnected, or with the engine stopped and the pump running, or at WOT the system fuel pressure will be approximately 2.5 bar. At idle speed (vacuum pipe connected), the fuel pressure will be approximately 0.5 bar under the system pressure. Catalytic Converter Versions with a Catalytic Converter will also be fitted with an oxygen sensor so that closed loop control of emissions can be implemented. The OS is heated so that it will reach optimum operating temperature as quickly as possible after the engine is started. The OS heater supply is made from the fuel injection relay terminal number 87b. This ensures that the heater will only operate whilst the engine is running. An FTVV and activated carbon canister is also be employed to aid evaporative emission control. The carbon canister stores fuel vapours until the FTVV is opened by the EMS under certain operating conditions. Once the FTVV is actuated by the EMS, fuel vapours are drawn into the inlet manifold to be burnt by the engine during normal combustion. Motronic 2.5 operation (all 20XE/C20XE engines post 1990, with a distributor) Motronic 2.5 is an enhancement of the Motronic 4.1 EMS fitted to earlier Vauxhall and Opel vehicles. It was first fitted in the 1990 model year (late 1989) and is a fully integrated system that controls primary ignition, fuelling and idle control from within the same ECU. It is normally only fitted to 16 valve GM engines. The control unit contains three microprocessors for: general control unit operation sequential injection knock control The Motronic ignition point and injection duration are jointly processed by the ECU so that the best moment for ignition and fuelling are determined for every operating condition. The injection function of the Motronic system is based on the well tried 'L' jetronic system, although a number of refinements have improved operation. A 55 pin connector and multi-plug connects the ECU to the battery, sensors and actuators. Basic ECU operation A permanent voltage supply is made from the vehicle battery to pin 18 of the ECU. This allows the self-diagnostic function to retain data of an intermittent nature. Once the ignition is switched on, a voltage supply to the ignition coil and to ECU pin 27 is made from the ignition switch. This causes the ECU to connect pin 36 to earth, so actuating the main fuel injection relay. A relay switched voltage supply is thus made to ECU pin 37, from terminal 87 of the main fuel injection relay. The majority of sensors (other than those that generate a voltage such the CAS, KS and OS), are now provided with a 5.0 volt reference supply from a relevant pin on the ECU. When the engine is cranked or run, a speed signal from the CAS causes the ECU to earth pin 3 so that the fuel pump will run. Ignition and injection functions are also activated. All actuators (Injectors, ISCV, FTVV etc), are supplied with nbv from the main relay and the ECU completes the circuit by pulsing the relevant actuator wire to earth. Signal processing Basic Ignition timing is calculated from the ignition map and engine load determines the basic injection pulse value. Correction factors are then applied for starting, idle, deceleration, part and full-load operation. The main engine load sensor is the AFS and the main correction factor is engine temperature. Reference voltage Voltage supply from the ECU to many of the engine sensors is at a 5.0 volt reference level. This ensures a stable working voltage unaffected by variations in system voltage. The earth return connection for most engine sensors is made through an ECU pin that is not directly connected to earth. The ECU internally connects that pin to earth via one of the ECU pins that are directly connected to earth. ECU coding wires (where fitted) Some vehicles equipped with Motronic 2.5 have certain ECU pins allocated as coding earths. The open circuit voltage at these pins is either nbv or at 5.0 volt reference level. Connection of the pin to earth indicates to the ECU that the vehicle is equipped with certain equipment. The non cat vehicle has pin 20 connected to earth and the catalyst equipped vehicle has pin 20 open circuit. The vehicle with AT has pin 21 connected to earth and the vehicle with MT has pin 21 open circuit. Signal shielding To reduce RFI, a number of sensors (i.e. CAS, HES, KS, amplifier and OS) use a shielded cable. The shielded cable is connected to the main ECU earth wire at terminal 19 to reduce interference to a minimum. Crankshaft Sensor Ignition Amplifier The amplifier contains the circuitry for switching the coil negative terminal at the correct moment to instigate ignition. The signal received by the amplifier from the trigger is of an insufficient level to complete the necessary coil switching. The signal is thus amplified to a level capable of switching the coil negative terminal. Unlike earlier Vauxhall/ Motronic systems (in which the amplifier was contained in the ECU itself), Motronic 2.5 utilises a separate amplifier mounted on a heat sink plate adjacent to the coil. The ECU thus calculates the correct ignition dwell time and timing advance from data received from its sensors, and sends a signal to the amplifier which then switches the coil negative terminal. The advantage of a separate amplifier, is that if the amplifier fails, it is less costly to renew than a new ECU. Dwell operation in Motronic is based upon the principle of the 'constant energy current limiting' system. This means that the dwell period remains constant at around 4.0 to 5.0 ms, at virtually all engine running speeds. However, the dwell duty cycle, when measured in percent or degrees, will vary as the engine speed varies. A current limiting hump is not visible when viewing an oscilloscope waveform. Ignition coil The ignition coil utilises low primary resistance in order to increase primary current and primary energy. The amplifier limits the primary current to around 8 amps and this permits a reserve of energy to maintain the required spark burn time (duration). Distributor In the Motronic system, the distributor only contains secondary HT components (distributor cap, rotor and HT leads) and serves to distribute the HT current from the coil secondary terminal to each spark plug in firing order. Knock sensor The optimal ignition timing (at engine speeds greater than idle) for a given high compression engine is quite close to the point of onset of knock. However, running so close to the point of knock occurrence, means that knock will certainly occur on one or more cylinders at certain times during the engine operating cycle. Since knock may occur at a different moment in each individual cylinder, Motronic 2.5 employs the Knock Control unit – KCU (in the ECU) to pinpoint the actual cylinder or cylinders that are knocking. The Knock Sensor is mounted on the engine block and consists of a piezoceramic measuring element that responds to engine noise oscillations. This signal is converted to a voltage signal by the Knock Sensor and returned to the KCU for evaluation and action. Tests have shown that the 20XE & C20XE engines have a knocking frequency in the 15kHz frequency band. The KCU will analyse the noise from each individual cylinder and set a reference noise level for that cylinder based upon the average of the last 16 phases. If the noise level exceeds the reference level by a certain amount, the KCU identifies the presence of engine knock. Initially, timing will occur at its optimal ignition point. Once knock is identified, the Knock Control microprocessor retards the ignition timing for that cylinder or cylinders by 3ш. Approximately 2 seconds after knocking ceases (20 to 120 knock- free combustion cycles), the timing is advanced in 0.75ш increments until the reference timing value is achieved or knock occurs once more when the timing is retarded or This procedure continually occurs so that all cylinders will consistently run at their optimum timing. If a fault exists in the Knock Control processor, Knock control sensor or wiring, an appropriate code will be logged in the self-diagnostic unit and the ignition timing retarded by 10.5ш by the LOS program. Cylinder Identification In earlier Motronic systems the ECU does not recognise number one cylinder or indeed even the firing order. This is because it is actually unnecessary. When the crankshaft or distributor provides a timing signal, the correct cylinder is identified by the mechanical position of the crankshaft, camshaft, valves and ignition rotor. In systems where the injectors fire simultaneously, then the fuel will sit upon the back of an inlet valve until the valve opens. Since fuel injection occurs on an individual cylinder basis in Motronic 2.5, the ECU must be informed on which stroke a cylinder is actually on. This is achieved by a cylinder identification sensor attached to the distributor and which works on the Hall-Effect principle. The sensor identifies number one cylinder, and returns a signal to the ECU from which the identification of all the other cylinders can be calculated. The distributor is attached to the exhaust camshaft (the engine is DOHC in configuration) . Octane coding Because of the sophistication of the KCU and timing control an octane coding plug is not considered necessary for the 20XE & C20XE engines. Octane adjustment is automatically selected according to operating conditions. Motronic 2.5 is programmed with two different timing maps. These are Low Octane Number Map (more retarded timing) and High Octane Number Map (more advanced dwell angle). The KCU selects the appropriate map according to the following conditions. Once knocking combustion of more than 50 have occurred, the KCU switches to the Low Octane Map. Once approximately 8.5 minutes of knock-free operation have passed, the KCU switches to the High Octane Map. Fuel injection determination The ECU or vehicle computer is programmed with a basic injector map. Information is then gathered from engine sensors such as the AFS, Crankshaft Sensor, CTS, and TS. As a result of this information, the ECU will look-up the correct injector pulse duration right across the engine rpm, load and temperature range. Fuel injection The Motronic 2.5 system is a multi-point injection system and pulses the injectors sequentially - i.e. in firing order and once perengine cycle. Each injector is connected to the ECU via a separate ECU pin). Earlier Motronic systems (i.e. 4.1 and 1.5) pulseall injectors at the same time - i.e. simultaneously and twice per engine cycle. During engine start from cold, the pulse duration and number of pulses (frequency) are increased to provide a richer air/fuel mixture. Fuel injectors The fuel injector is a magnetically operated solenoid valve that is actuated by the ECU. Voltage to the injectors is applied from the main relay and the earth path is completed by the ECU for a period of time (called pulse duration) of between 1.5 and 10 milliseconds. The pulse duration is very much dependant upon engine temperature, load, speed and operating conditions. When the magnetic solenoid closes, a back EMF voltage of up to 60 volts is initiated. The fuel injectors are mounted in the inlet stubs to the engine inlet valves so that a finely atomised fuel spray is directed onto the back of each valve. Since the injectors are all pulsed simultaneously, fuel will briefly rest upon the back of a valve before being drawn into a cylinder. Hot Wire Air mass meter (AFS) Motronic 2.5 also uses a Hot Wire airflow sensor to measure the mass of air entering engine. From the air mass, an accurate fuel injection pulse can then be calculated. Hot Wire is a very accurate method of calculating the engine load (air input) and excludes the need for additional sensors to measure air temperature and air pressure. Automatic compensation for altitude is thus provided. The absence of moving parts improves reliability and lessens maintenance requirements. Essentially, the hot wire is so called because a heated wire is placed in the air intake. As air passes over the wire it has a cooling effect in proportion to the mass of air. As airmass increases or decreases according to engine load, the ECU adjusts the current flow to maintain the wire at its original resistance and temperature. By measuring the change in current flow, the ECU is able to determine the mass of air flow into the engine. As the current varies on the signal wire, so does the voltage and an indication of load can be assessed by measuring the variable voltage signal. Voltage is applied to the sensor from the system relay. If a fault exists in the Hot Wire AFS or wiring, an appropriate code will be logged in the self-diagnostic unit and a substitute value provided by the LOS program. Hot wire burn-off Over a period of time, deposits tend to build-up upon the hot wire and this can lead to contamination of the hot-wire. This is avoided with a `burn-off' function controlled by the ECU during engine shutdown. Approximately four seconds after the engine has been switched off, the ECU rapidly pulses the hot-wire terminal CO pot The CO pot mixture adjuster is a three wire potentiometer that allows small changes to be made to the idle CO. A 5.0 volt reference voltage is applied to the sensor and connected to the AFS earth return circuit. The third wire is the CO pot signal. As the CO pot adjustment screw is turned the change in resistance returns a voltage signal to the ECU that will result in a change in CO. The CO pot adjustment only affects idle CO. On catalyst equipped models, the CO pot has no effect and the CO is thus non-adjustable. CTS Throttle switch A throttle switch with dual contacts is provided to inform the ECU of idle position, deceleration, cruising and full-load (WOT) conditions. When the engine is at idle the idle contact is closed and the full-load contact is open. As the throttle is moved to the fully open position, the full-load contact closes and the idle contact becomes open. Under cruising conditions with a part-open throttle, both contacts are open. During full-load operation, the ECU provides additional enrichment. During closed throttle operation above a certain rpm (deceleration), the ECU will cut-off fuel injection. Injection will be reintroduced once the rpm returns to idle or the throttle is opened. ISCV The ISCV is a solenoid controlled actuator that the ECU uses to automatically control idle speed during normal idle and during engine warm-up. The ISCV is located in a hose that connects the inlet manifold to the air filter side of the throttle plate. When an electrical load, such as headlights or heater fan etc are switched on, the idle speed would tend to drop. The ECU will sense the load and rotate the ISCV against spring tension to increase the air flow through the valve and thus increase the idlespeed. When the load is removed, the ECU will pulse the valve so that the air flow is reduced. Normal idle speed should be maintained under all cold and hot operating conditions. If the ISCV fails it will fail in a fail-safe position with the aperture almost closed. This will provide a basic idle speed. Relays The Motronic electrical system is controlled by a single system relay with dual contacts. A permanent voltage supply is made to relay terminals 30 and 86 from the battery positive terminal. When the ignition is switched on, the ECU earths terminal 85 through ECU terminal number 36 which energises the first relay winding. This causes the first relay contacts to close and terminal 30 is connected to the output circuit at terminal 87. A voltage supply is thus output at terminal 87. Terminal 87 supplies voltage to the injectors, ECU terminal 37, ISCV and the FTVV when fitted. In addition voltage is supplied to the second relay contact. When the ignition is switched on. the ECU briefly earths relay contact 85b at ECU terminal 3. This winding, which closes the second relay contact and connects voltage from terminal 30 to terminal 87b, thereby providing voltage to the fuel pump circuit. After approximately one second, the ECU opens the circuit and the pump stops. This brief running of the fuel pump allows pressure to build within the fuel pressure lines, and provides for an easier start. The second circuit will then remain open until the engine is cranked or run. Once the ECU receives a speed signal from the Crankshaft Sensor, the second winding will again be energised by the ECU, and the fuel pump will run until the engine is stopped. Fuel pressure system A roller type fuel pump, driven by a permanent magnet electric motor mounted close to the fuel tank, draws fuel from the tank and pumps it to the fuel rail via a fuel filter. The pump is of the 'wet' variety in that fuel actually flows through the pump and the electric motor. There is no actual fire risk because the fuel drawn through the pump is not in a combustible condition. Mounted upon the armature shaft is an eccentric rotor holding a number of pockets arranged around the circumference – each pocket containing a metal roller. As the pump is actuated, the rollers are flung outwards by centrifugal force to act as seals. The fuel between the rollers is forced to the pump pressure outlet. Fuel pressure in the fuel rail is maintained at a constant 2.5 bar by a fuel pressure regulator. The fuel pump normally provides much more fuel than is required, and surplus fuel is thus returned to the fuel tank via a return pipe. In fact, a maximum fuel pressure in excess of 5 bar is possible in this system. To prevent pressure loss in the supply system, a non-return valve is provided in the fuel pump outlet. When the ignition is switched off, and the fuel pump ceases operation, pressure is thus maintained for some time. Fuel pressure regulator The pressure regulator is fitted on the outlet side of the fuel rail and maintains an even pressure of 2.5 bar in the fuel rail. The pressure regulator consists of two chambers separated by a diaphragm. The upper chamber contains a spring which exerts pressure upon the lower chamber and closes off the outlet diaphragm. Pressurised fuel flows into the lower chamber and this exerts pressure upon the diaphragm. Once the pressure exceeds 2.5 bar, the outlet diaphragm is opened and excess fuel flows back to the fuel tank via a return line. A vacuum hose connects the upper chamber to the inlet manifold so that variations in inlet manifold pressure will not affect the amount of fuel injected. This means that the pressure in the rail is always at a constant pressure above the pressure in the inlet manifold. The quantity of injected fuel thus depends solely on injector opening time, as determined by the ECU, and not on a variable fuel pressure. At idle speed with the vacuum pipe disconnected, or with the engine stopped and the pump running, or at WOT the system fuel pressure will be approximately 2.5 bar. At idle speed (vacuum pipe connected), the fuel pressure will be approximately 0.5 bar under the system pressure. Self Diagnostic function The Motronic 2.5 system has a self-test capability that regularly examines the signals from engine sensors and internally logs a code in the event of a fault being present. This code can be extracted from the Motronic serial port by a suitable Fault Code Reader. When the ECU detects that a fault is present, it earths pin 17 and the warning lamp on the dash will light. The lamp will stay lit until the fault is no longer present. If the fault clears, the code will remain logged until wiped clean with a suitable FCR, or until the engine has been started for more than 20 times when the fault code is self initialising. An ECU that retains codes for faults of an intermittent nature is a valuable aid to fault diagnosis. In addition to the self-test capability, Motronic 2.5 has full limp home facilities. In the event of a serious fault in one or more of the sensors, the EMS will substitute a fixed default value in place of the defective sensor. This means that the engine may actually run quite well with failure of one or more minor sensors. Since the substituted value are those of a hot engine, cold starting and running during the warm-up period may be less than satisfactory. Also, failure of a major sensor, i.e. the AFS, will tend to make driving conditions less easy. Catalytic Converter and emission control Versions with a Catalytic Converter will also be fitted with an oxygen sensor so that closed loop control of emissions can be implemented. The OS is heated so that it will reach optimum operating temperature as quickly as possible after the engine is started. The OS heater supply is made from the fuel injection relay terminal number 87b. This ensures that the heater will only operate whilst the engine is running. An FTVV and activated carbon canister are also being employed to aid evaporative emission control. The carbon canister stores fuel vapours until the FTVV is opened by the EMS under certain operating conditions. Once the FTVV is actuated by the EMS, fuel vapours are drawn into the inlet manifold to be burnt by the engine during normal combustion.
  12. Three..... you were lucky! The floor of my extension is a massacre!! Will take some pics, although not as horrifying as them all falling out like something from the mummy! For me @GreyDJ2: 1. Raffle: that while I know the raffle and arena are designed to keep people there on a Sunday, generationally it's a bit of a hard sell - particularly the raffle tickets. Perhaps it's time they considered going a bit bigger ticket (ha!) and getting a single or couple of really valuable item which entice many more people to buy tickets, so the tickets could be sold for more money... not £1 for a ticket and you might win a pair of pliers, or some beer... I know they had £100 voucher for online shopping and £50 for the car parts store that sponsored the event that wasn't bad - But tbh, I think it's kind of run it's course and could be replaced with another activity that is more agnostic to Sunday. It was funny looking at all the dead stands on Saturday for the old stuff that were full on Sunday to the brim, while newer stuff it was the opposite way around (if 40 years is newer, as we are included!) not sure what the answer is. Maybe we are not yet approaching the "funniest ticktok video about your Vauxhall", but I think steps should be taken to engage younger generations with something going on - there is a big gulf between bouncy castles and raffles. 2. Allow private individuals to have autojumble stands again. Something (even beyond covid) has clearly happened and we only see companies with very old or very new parts, with very little from the 80s and there must be loads in people's garages that they'd bring if there wasn't so much red tape (assuming there is any!) 3. It says a lot when mobile showers are better than brick built ones at billing ever were - they were fine when they were working. I'd have expected more of them though given covid and wet grass, but they did a great job with cleaning them. 5. Don't let the calls for spreading out of toilets next year mean there are less of them, or that they and more poorly cleaned (like market Harborough). Having them in once place does create an economy of scale - even if it might have got some complaints this year, at least they were cleaned more than previously any event previously... 7. I know it's a push, but maybe they could sell tickets to a "meal" / event in the hangars or museum? Like a talk from behind the scenes or some old war stories or something. Or music etc. once things get back to normal! They did an amazing job organising it. Everything else is just niggles. I hope they stay there for the event setting, but I do wonder why we got so many bugs compared to previously when there were none!
  13. Gutted for all involved! At least there is next year. Let me know if you need any help getting it up the road after Paul has looked after it. Be good to find time for a proper catch up. Sorry we didn't get time to chat longer on Sunday!
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